“The Greater Mekong is one of the most vulnerable places on Earth to the impacts of climate change.”
“Overall Climate Vulnerability Ranking:
Of the 11 cities examined, Dhaka in Bangladesh is most vulnerable to climate change impacts. This large, relatively
poor city sits just meters above current sea levels, is regularly impacted by tropical cyclones and flooding, and has very limited adaptive capacity. Jakarta in Indonesia and Manila in the Philippines are also highly vulnerable cities and tied for the second rank, largely because of the size of the cities, degree of exposure (both experience frequent flooding), and relatively low adaptive capacity. Calcutta in India and Phnom Penh in Cambodia are tied for third most vulnerable city, largely because Calcutta is prone to salt-water intrusion and sea-level rise effects, while Phnom Penh has very low adaptive capacity. Ho Chi Minh City in Vietnam and Shanghai in China are tied for fourth most vulnerable city, because both are very susceptible to sea-level rise, even though Vietnam and China may have slightly higher adaptive capacity when compared to some of the other cities. Bangkok in Thailand is the fifth most vulnerable city, mostly because it has a relatively high socio-economic sensitivity to impacts (i.e., it has a large population and contributes a large proportion towards Thailand’s gross domestic product). Kuala Lumpur in Malaysia, Hong Kong in China, and Singapore in the Republic of Singapore are all tied for the sixth most vulnerable city, mostly because all three have slightly more adaptive capacity than the other cities, even though the climate impacts are still significant.”
Mega-Stress for Mega-Cities: A Climate Vulnerability Ranking of Major Coastal Cities in Asia: http://awsassets.panda.org/downloads/mega_cities_report.pdf
World Wildlife Federation Identifies at Risk Asian Cities: http://wwf.panda.org/?180202/International-Energy-Agency-fails-to-light-the-way-to-a-safe-climate-future
The Greate r Mekong and Climate Change: Biodiversity, Ecosystem Services and Development at Risk: http://awsassets.panda.org/downloads/final_cc_reportlowres_3.pdf .
World Wildlife Federation Great Mekong Climate Change: http://wwf.panda.org/what_we_do/where_we_work/greatermekong/challenges_in_the_greater_mekong/climate_change_in_the_greater_mekong/
WATER AND CLIMATE CHANGE IN THE LOWER MEKONG BASIN:Diagnosis & recommendations for adaptation Water and Development Research Group, TKK & Southeast Asia START Regional Center: http://www.water.tkk.fi/English/wr/research/global/material/Water&ClimateChange_final-report.pdf.
“For the Greater Mekong, climate change compounds existing threats affecting the region’s people, biodiversity and natural resources.
Climate change exacerbates the impacts of current environmental threats such as habitat loss, poorly planned infrastructure, and unsustainable natural resource extraction. These threats reduce ecosystem resilience (i.e., the capacity of ecosystems to ‘bounce back’ or recover from disturbances and damage). Climate change further stresses and therefore degrades the ecosystems upon which the region’s social and economic future depends.
Ecosystem deterioration will have cascading effects, which will eventually affect people. For example, water scarcity may reduce agricultural productivity, which will lead to food scarcity, unemployment and poverty.
Among lower Mekong Basin countries, Laos and Cambodia have been identified as the most vulnerable in part because of their limited capacity to cope with climate related risks (Yusuf and Francisco 2009). In all countries, climate change complicates existing problems. For example, rising seas will compound the effects of floods caused by land subsidence and coastal erosion.”
“The objectives of the Cambodian NAPA are (Ministry of Environment 2006):
1) understand the main characteristics of climate hazards in Cambodia (flood, drought, windstorm, high tide, salt water intrusion and malaria);
2) understand coping mechanisms to climate hazards and climate change at the grassroots level;
3) understand existing programmes and institutional arrangements for addressing climate hazards and climate change; and
4) identify and prioritise adaptation activities to climate hazards and climate change
The national priorities sectors for climate change adaptation in Cambodia are agriculture, forestry, human health, and the coastal zone. So far the focus has been mostly on post-disaster assistance, but currently more emphasis is being put on prevention methods while also trying to expand the post-disaster assistance to a larger share of the population.”