United Nations Population Fund: Cambodia

From http://www.unfpa.org July 28, 2011

Sangkheum Center

Cambodia, with a population of 14.8 million, is one of Asia’s least developed countries. The population is young and highly transient, especially during seasonal food shortages. Almost 21 per cent of the population lives in urban areas, placing pressure on housing, infrastructure, waste, sanitation and water and food supplies. Moreover, rapid urbanization tends to concentrate poverty in urban slums.

In recent decades, Cambodia has seen a steady decline in poverty and great improvements in access to education and health services. Infant and child mortality rates, while still high, have also decreased, while child nutrition has further improved. Maternal mortality, however, remains high at 540 deaths per 100,000 live births. There has been slow to moderate increases in family planning, deliveries by skilled health personnel and the use of antenatal care. The demand for delivery by skilled health personnel is high, but cost and distance make accessibility difficult. Midwives are in short supply.

HIV/AIDS prevalence is declining in Cambodia. There are, however, new high risk groups of married women, children, youth, men who have sex with men, drug users and migrants. Awareness about sexually transmitted diseases is limited, especially among youth. The new Health Strategic Plan (2008-2015) of the Ministry of Health prioritizes issues regarding reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health.

There is now greater awareness of women’s rights and perceptions regarding women’s role in society are changing. However, gender gaps in literacy and education, while narrowing, persist. The number of women in senior government positions also remains low. Violence against women is highly prevalent in Cambodian society. The National Action Plan to Combat Violence Against Women is being implemented in accordance with the 2005 Law on the Prevention of Domestic Violence and Protection of Victims.

POPULATION
1990 Most Recent
Life Expectancy at Birth, Female, Years
56 63.92
2010
Life Expectancy at Birth, Male, Years
52 60.595
2010
Life Expectancy at Birth, Total, Years
54 62.382
2010
Median Age of Total Population
18 22.317
2010
Old-age Dependency Ratio
5 6
2009
Population Age 60 and Over, Per Cent
5 6
2009
Population Under Age 15, Per Cent
45 33
2009
Sex Ratio at Birth, Male Births per 100 Female Births
105 105
2010
Total Fertility Rate per Woman 15-49
5.6 2.74
2010
Urban Population, Per Cent
13 20.11
2010
Women 15-49, Per Cent of Total Female Population
47 54.396
2010
Contraceptive Prevalence Rate for Women 15-49, Modern Method, Per Cent
na 27.1
2005
Contraceptive Prevalence Rate for Women 15-49, Any Method, Per Cent  
na 40
2005
Dependency Ratio
90 56.575
2010
Child Dependency Ratio
85 50.959
2010
Crude Birth Rate per 1,000 Population
na 24.422
2010
Crude Death Rate per 1,000 Population
na 7.92
2010
Population in Thousands, Female
na 7679.075
2010
Population in Thousands, Male
na 7374.037
2010
HIV/AIDS
1990 Most Recent
HIV/AIDS Prevalence, 15-49, Female, Per Cent
na 0.4
2007
HIV/AIDS Prevalence, 15-49, Male, Per Cent
na 1.2
2007
HIV/AIDS Prevalence, 15-49, Total, Per Cent
na 0.8
2007
SOCIO-ECONOMIC & HEALTH
1990 Most Recent
Access to Improved Drinking Water Supply, Per Cent  
na 65
2006
Access to Improved Sanitation, Per Cent  
na 29
2008
Access to Improved Water Supply, Per Cent
na 61
2008
Gross Domestic Product Growth Rate, Annual Per Cent
na 5.2
2008
Gross Domestic Product Per Capita, Purchasing Power Parity, International Dollars
na 1,905
2008
Income Group per World Bank Classification
na Low income
2009
Population Below $1.25/Day, Per Cent 
na 40
2004
Population Living Below National Poverty Line, Per Cent
na 30.1
2007
Share of Income or Consumption by Poorest Quintile 
na 6.5
2007
REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH DEMAND
1990 Most Recent
Projected Increase/Decrease in Women of Reproductive Age 2000-2015, Per Cent
na 31
2015
Projected Increase/Decrease in Women of Reproductive Age 2000-2015, Thousands
na 1403
2015
Unmet Need for Family Planning, Limiting, Per Cent
na 16.2
2005
Unmet Need for Family Planning, Spacing, Per Cent
na 8.9
2005
Unmet Need for Family Planning, Total, Per Cent 
na 25.1
2005
REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH COMMODITY SECURITY
1990 Most Recent
Recent Births Unwanted, Per Cent
na 35
2005
GENDER EQUALITY
1990 Most Recent
Gender Parity Index, Net Primary Enrolment 
81 94
2008
Gender Parity Index, Net Secondary Enrolment
43 82
2007
Labor Force Participation Rate, 15-64, Female
na 78
2006
Labor Force Participation Rate, 15-64, Male
na 82
2006
Legislators, Senior Officials and Managers, Per Cent Female
na 14
2008
Professional and Technical Workers, Per Cent, Female
na 33
2008
Seats in Parliament Held by Women, Per Cent 
na 16
2009
ADOLESCENT REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH
1990 Most Recent
Adolescent Women 15-19 Who Have Begun Childbearing, Per Cent
na 8
2005
Age-Specific Fertility Rate per 1,000 Women, 15-19 
na 52.3
2003
HIV Knowledge, Men 15-24 Who Know That a Person Can Reduce Risk of HIV by Consistent Condom Use, Per Cent
na 92
2005
HIV Knowledge, Women 15-24 Who Know That a Healthy-looking Person Can Transmit HIV, Per Cent
na 72
2005
HIV Knowledge, Women 15-24 Who Know That a Person Can Reduce Risk of HIV by Consistent Condom Use, Per Cent
na 89
2005
HIV/AIDS Prevalence, 15-24, Female, Per Cent 
na 0.3
2007
HIV/AIDS Prevalence, 15-24, Male, Per Cent  
na 0.8
2007
Married/In Union by Age 18, Per Cent, 20-24, Female
na 23.3
2005
Married/In Union by Age 18, Per Cent, 25-49, Female
na 25
2005
Median Age at First Sexual Intercourse, 20-24, Female
na na
na
Median Age at First Sexual Intercourse, 25-49, Female
na 20
2005
Median Age at Marriage/Union, 20-24, Female
na 20.1
2005
Median Age at Marriage/Union, 25-49, Female
na 20
2005
Median Age at Marriage/Union, Male
na 22
2005
Proportion of Population 15-24
19 24
2009
EDUCATION
1990 Most Recent
Illiteracy Rate, Per Cent of Population 15-24, Female 
34 17
2007
Illiteracy Rate, Per Cent of Population 15-24, Male 
19 10
2007
Literacy Rate, Per Cent of Population 15-24, Female
na 85.5
2008
Literacy Rate, Per Cent of Population 15-24, Male
na 89.4
2008
Primary School Enrolment, Gross Per Cent of School Age Population, Female
na 115
2007
Primary School Enrolment, Gross Per Cent of School Age Population, Male
na 124
2007
Primary School Net Enrolment Rate, Female
na 86.7
2008
Primary School Net Enrolment Rate, Male
na 90.4
2008
Secondary School Enrolment, Gross Per Cent of School Age Population, Female
na 36
2007
Secondary School Enrolment, Gross Per Cent of School Age Population, Male
na 44
2007
Secondary School Net Enrolment Rate, Female
na 32
2007
Secondary School Net Enrolment Rate, Male
na 36
2007
Total Net Enrolment Ratio in Primary Education, Female
na 87.4
2007
POPULATION
1990 Most Recent
Old-age Dependency Ratio
na 5.616
2010
Population Age 60 and Over, Per Cent
na 5.856
2010
Population Growth Rate, Per Cent
na 1.633
2010
Population Under Age 15, Per Cent
na 32.546
2010
CHILD HEALTH
1990 Most Recent
Children Underweight Under 5, Moderate and Severe, Per Cent  
na 35.6
2005
Infant Mortality Rate per 1,000 Live Births  
87 69
2008
Under Age 5 Mortality Rate per 1,000 Live Births  
119 90
2008
MATERNAL HEALTH
1990 Most Recent
Antenatal Care, At Least One Visit, Per Cent  
na 69.3
2005
Deliveries Attended by Skilled Attendants, Per Cent  
na 43.8
2005
Maternal Mortality Ratio per 100,000 Live Births (MMR)  
na 540
2005
MMR, Lower Bound
na 370
2005
MMR, Upper Bound
na 720
2005

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